“局外人”:19、20世纪之交英国“非国教宗”工业家之新村建设与现代城市规划的形成*
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刘亦师,清华大学建筑学院副教授、博士生导师,从事中国近现代建筑史研究。

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国家自然科学基金资助项目(51778318)


“Outsiders”: English Non-Conformist Entrepreneurs at the Turn of the Twentieth Century and the Impact of Their Industrial Model Villages on Modern City Planning
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    摘要:

    18 世纪后半叶工业革命开始之后,英国涌现出各种理想城市的构想和实践,不绝如缕。其中,工业家离开城市新建工厂及附属的工人居住区,成为这一传统的重要内容,并以富有社会改革热情的“非国教宗”工业家的成就最为瞩目。19 世纪前期工业新村的布局仍类同城市中的连栋住房,至 19 世纪 80 年代利华建设阳光港村才统一考虑公共设施、道路形式、街道景观、住宅组合形态等,此后吉百利的伯恩维尔村和朗特里的新厄斯威克村又加以发扬和创造,在规划理念、设计手法和管理方式等方面积累了有益的经验,切实促使英国乃至西方社会普遍接受了带有花园的工人阶级住房的设计模式,并推动了田园城市思想的普及和田园城市运动的发展。本文主要分析上述 3 处工人新村规划和建设的思想来源,考查其时代背景与作为 “局外人”的“非国教宗”工业家的建设目的,比较它们各自的规划特征及相互关联,缕析它们在现代城市规划形成过程中的影响。

    Abstract:

    Industrial Revolution first took place in Great Britain, where utopian ideal cities sprang up in large numbers since the end of the eighteenth century, stimulating theoretical discourse and social engagement. A new tradition started as non-conformist entrepreneurs set up their new factories outside crowded cities along with adjacent industrial villages for the working class. The industrial villages in the fifirst half of the nineteenth century did not deviate from the terrace housing form usually found in big cities, while the planning and construction of Port Sunlight (built by William Lever in the 1880s) marked the departure towards modern city planning, taking a holistic approach to arranging related issues such as amenities, road network, street views, or house combination. Contemporary model cities like Bournville (built by George Cadbury) and New Earswick (built by Joseph Rowntree) followed the same scheme that finally resulted in the emergence of modern city planning as a new discipline. This paper explores the intellectual genesis of the three industrial model villages, examines their historical background and the social reform ambitions of their three non-conformist entrepreneurs, and concludes with their impact on the formation and development of modern city planning.

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刘亦师.“局外人”:19、20世纪之交英国“非国教宗”工业家之新村建设与现代城市规划的形成*[J].建筑史学刊,2021,2(1):131-144.

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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-04-22