应县木塔各层皆设有塑像，目前仍存 26 尊，整座木塔仿佛一座沿垂直方向层层垒叠的立体佛寺。木塔的室内空间设计在很大程度上乃是为各层塑像“量身定做”。本文在前人研究基础上，通过对应县木塔的建筑和各层塑像 (包括首层壁画)进行测绘，结合对测绘图的几何作图与实测数据分析，发现并指出： 第一，应县木塔各层的室内空间与塑像群之间，有着极其清晰的构图比例，尤其体现在各层层高与佛像高度的比例关系上。 第二，木塔每层塑像群内部，各像之间也存在清楚明了的比例关系。 第三，全塔 26 尊塑像几乎每一尊塑像自身也有着十分经典的构图比例，并且按照不同类型有着明晰的规律。 第四，木塔三、五层佛像通高之和，二、四层佛像通高之和，与首层大佛通高呈 3∶4∶5(即“勾三股四弦五”)比例关系，并与各层像设布置所反映的佛教教义、仪轨契合。第五，木塔首层大佛通高不仅是各层佛像通高的模度，也是木塔建筑的模度之一，等于木塔总高(不含台基) 的 1/6。 从上述分析中可以总结出应县木塔室内空间与塑像中运用最多的几种经典比例，包括 、3∶2、5∶3(或 8∶5)以及9∶5，其背后蕴含着丰富的文化内涵：诸如《周髀算经》《营造法式》等古代文献所载“圆方图”“方圆图” 等所反映的“天圆地方”的宇宙观；《周易》中的“参天两地而倚数”“九五之尊”等观念；并且很可能与佛教密宗的 “曼荼罗”图式、西方的“黄金分割比”等有所关联，值得深入探究。
There were statues on every floor of the Timber Pagoda in Ying county, Shanxi province, but only 26 of them have survived．The pagoda was designed as a vertically rising Buddhist temple and the interior space of each of its successive layers was customized for the statues installed on each floor．Based on previous research， and through surveying and mapping of architecture and statuary (including the fifirst-flfloor mural) combined with geometric design analysis， this paper proposes the following： First, the interior space and statuary on every flfloor appear to follow clear geometric proportions evident in the relationship between flfloor height and statue height． Second, proportional relationships exist between all the statues installed on the same floor. Third, each of the 26 statues has ‘classical’ rules of proportion specifific to its category． Fourth, the ratio of third- and fifth-floor statue height to second- and fourth-floor statue height and to first-floor statue height is 3∶4∶5∶which corresponds to the Chinese interpretation of the Pythagorean theorem with gou equal to 3, gu equal to 4, and xian equal to 5,． This ratio fifits with the Buddhist doctrine reflflected in the arrangement of the statues on each flfloor． Fifth, the first-floor statue height is used as a module for generating not only the statue height on every floor but also the total pagoda height, which measures (without the base) six times this module. In summary, the most frequently used proportions for the design of interior space and placement of statues inside the pagoda are , 3∶2 or 5∶3 (or 8∶5) and 9∶5, and these ratios are all imbued with cultural meaning.For example，Zhoubi suanjing and Yingzao fashi both record the “rounded-square map” (yuanfang tu) and the “squared-circle map” (fangyuan tu)， which portray the ancient Chinese world view of a domeshaped heaven and a flat， square earth (tian yuan di fang) and can be understood in terms of these ratios. Another related aspect is ancient Chinese numerology that regards three as the heavenly number and two as the earthly number， with all other numbers being based on them (santian liangdi er yishu); and the numbers nine and fifive as denoting an honorable position (jiuwu zhizun). A fifinal thought that awaits further research is that the above-mentioned ratios also relate to Esoteric Buddhist mandalas and the Golden Ratio of Western mathematics and architectural design.