东方药师净土变中的“天宫楼阁”*
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尤奕铭,福州大学建筑与城乡规划学院硕士研究生,主要从事建筑史与遗产保护研究。朱永春,福州大学建筑与城乡规划学院教授,主要从事建筑史与遗产保护研究。

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国家自然科学基金面上项目“《营造法式》小木作之帐藏研究与注疏”(51878177)国家社会科学基金重大项目“4—12 世纪帐、藏的文物与《营造法式》综合研究”(20&ZD227)


Tiangong Louge in Eastern Pure Land Illustrations of the Medicine Buddha
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    摘要:

    “天宫楼阁”是佛教传入中国后,以唐、宋等时期建筑形象为蓝本,结合中国传统文化中“天”的观念所塑造的建筑形式。本文以《营造法式》为参照系,对东方药师净土变中“天宫楼阁”的单体类型与组群方式作了初步的梳理。从单体类型看,其包含了《营造法式》天宫楼阁中的殿身、茶楼、角楼、挟屋、行廊,但未见龟头屋; 也包含了《营造法式》中不存在的亭、塔、三门、钟楼与经楼等。究其原因,除了因为东方药师净土变时间上先于 《法式》,且有一个演进过程,也因为药师信仰的现实与功利性。其组群方式主要有:前景敞开式一进院落型、前景敞开式两进院落型、前景封闭式一进院落型、前景封闭式两进院落型。本文进而选择东方净土变中几个“天宫楼阁” 案例,还原到其文化背景中作图像学分析。

    Abstract:

    After the arrival of Buddhism in China, the foreign concept of heavenly buildings merged with the indigenous Tang-Song architecture into what became known as tiangong louge (heavenly palaces). Through comparison with Song building standards (Yingzao fashi), this paper analyzes the architectural representations of tiangong louge in Eastern Pure Land illustrations of the Medicine Buddha. What becomes immediately apparent is that Yingzao fashi describes only a few specific buildings (dianshen, chalou, jiaolou, xiewu, xinglang),whereas the Pure Land illustrations depict a greater diversity and variety of form (for example, sanmen).A possible reason for this is that the idea of the Eastern Pure Land underwent significant change before the Yingzao fashiwas compiled; another reason is that the belief in the Eastern Pure Land was always rooted in reality and the actual conditions of the site. Additionally, Eastern Pure Land illustrations reveal four different types of clustered design: open foreground, one courtyard; open foreground, two courtyards; closed foreground, one courtyard; and closed foreground, two courtyards.

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尤奕铭,朱永春.东方药师净土变中的“天宫楼阁”*[J].建筑史学刊,2022,(1):11-21.

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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-04-27