营造尺和材分制:应县木塔五层木构表里数据采集与试解*
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李泽辉,清华大学建筑学院博士研究生,主要从事中国古代建筑历史与理论研究。李大卫,清华大学建筑学院博士研究生,主要从事中国古代建筑历史与理论研究。刘畅,清华大学建筑学院副教授,博士,主要从事中国古代建筑史和文物建筑保护研究。

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国家社会科学基金重大项目“《营造法式》研究与注疏”(17ZDA185)清华大学自主课题“《营造法式》与宋辽金建筑案例研究”(2017THZWYX05)


Construction Ruler and/or Modular Caifen System? Data Acquisition and Interpretation of the Structural Design of Sakyamuni Pagoda, Ying County, Shanxi Province
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    摘要:

    建立在本研究团队既有假说与分析基础上,本文选取应县木塔五层外檐铺作作为研究对象,分别以三维激光扫描和计算机 X 射线成像(CR-Computed Radiography) 技术采集外部设计与内部隐蔽构造数据信息,充分结合实测数据对现有成果进行验证,并对应县木塔五层斗栱材分制度、尺度设计和部分内部榫卯设计进一步提出以下推论: 一,应县木塔五层斗栱足材广约 1.2 尺(20 分°),单材广约 8.4 寸(14 分°);材厚在 5 寸至 6 寸之间,或存在多种设计;二,应县木塔五层大木设计之中丈尺设计与材分设计或同时存在:以丈尺控制开间(朵距)、屋架、栱长整体比例关系,以材分配合栱与斗的精细设计;三,应县木塔五层斗栱的内部榫卯设计同样受到丈尺和材分思想的双重控制。此外,本文还强调三维激光扫描技术和计算机 X 射线成像技术综合运用在古建筑研究中的深远前景,同时也讨论了现有技术条件的局限和本研究的不足之处。

    Abstract:

    The paper investigates the exterior design and the joinery of the bracket sets (dougong) installed under the eaves on the fifth floor of the Sakyamuni Pagoda built in Ying county, Shanxi province, in 1056, by using 3-D laser scanning technology and computed radiography. The results of these investigations indicate the following: First, the full and single standard units of zucai and dancai are 1.2 chi (20 fen° ) and 0.85 chi (14 fen° ) long respectively, and one cai is between 0.5 and 0.6 chi thick. Second, the construction ruler (absolute measurements) and the modular (caifen) system complement each other well; more precisely, the construction ruler was used to determinate the bay length, purlin span, and bracketlength, whereas the modular system was used to design the particularities of dou and gong. Third, the design of the mortise and tenon joints in a dougong was controlled by both the construction ruler and the modular system. In addition, the paper propagates 3-D laser scanning and computed radiography technology as efficient and sophisticated digital tools for field survey and research, while pointing out the limitations due to local conditions and the narrow scope of this study.

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李泽辉,李大卫,刘畅.营造尺和材分制:应县木塔五层木构表里数据采集与试解*[J].建筑史学刊,2022,(1):36-53.

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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-04-27